At the outset, it should be mentioned that the history of ancient Nepal is primarily the history of the Kathmandu Valley. There are two reasons for this. One is the lack of historical records for other parts of Nepal and the other is that the colorful past of this beautiful valley easily outshines what is known about other areas. There is also the fact that the name of the country is taken from the name by which Kathmandu was known in earlier times – Nepal Valley.
Dating back to times when one dynasty overthrew the other, Nepal’s history is filled with drama and treachery, bravery and heroism as the highs and lows of the regime speaks for its occurrences. If the Lichhavi dynasty prides of enjoying the classical age when Nepalese art and architecture flourished, it was the Thakuri dynasty that has been regarded as the “dark ages”. But the uncertainty of time was soon revived by a wise king from the Malla dynasty as a new renaissance begins in the country.
Between conquest and capitulation of smaller kingdoms, it was when the Gorkhas under the leadership of King Prithvi Narayan Shah fought and unified the Kingdom of Nepal. But hostilities with the colonial neighbors, the East India Company, and conspiracy massacres seized the Shah’s dynasty power to the Ranas as they rule the country for next 104 years.
Interestingly, the Rana regime came to an end in 1951. A democratic government was under way only to be replaced by the “partyless” Panchayat System introduced by King Mahendra Bikram Shah. With limited political freedom, it was in 1990 when the first “People’s Movement” re-established democracy in Nepal during the reign of King Birendra Shah. Maoist started Civil War against the government that claimed 13000 lives since its inception in 1996.
A dark day in modern history, Royal Massacre at Narayan Hiti Palace in June 01, 2001 saw King Birendra and his entire family assassinated, allegedly by his own son Prince Deependra. King Gyanendra took over the throne, took over the power on direct Monarch system which lead to 2nd People’s Movement leading to Abolition of Monarchy and establishment of Republic Nepal in 2006.